- Harvey Cushing – known as the father of modern neurosurgery
Harvey Williams Cushing (April 8, 1869 – October 7, 1939) was an American neurosurgeon. A pioneer of brain surgery, he was the first person to describeCushing’s syndrome.He is often called the “father of modern neurosurgery.”
- Ludvig Puusepp – known as one of the founding fathers of modern neurosurgery, world’s first professor of neurosurgery
Ludvig Puusepp (also Pussep or Pousep, rus. Людвиг Мартынович Пуссеп), (3 December [O.S. 21 November] 1875, Kiev – 19 October 1942, Tartu) was an Estonian surgeon and researcher and the world’s first professor of neurosurgery.
- Walter Dandy – known as one of the founding fathers of modern neurosurgery
Walter Edward Dandy (April 6, 1886 – April 19, 1946) was an American neurosurgeon and scientist. He is considered one of the founding fathers of neurosurgery, along with Victor Horsley (1857–1916) and Harvey Cushing (1869–1939). Dandy is credited with numerous neurosurgical discoveries and innovations, including the description of the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, surgical treatment of hydrocephalus, the invention of air ventriculography and pneumoencephalography, the description of brain endoscopy, the establishment of the first intensive care unit (Fox 1984, p. 82), and the first clipping of an intracranial aneurysm, which marked the birth of cerebrovascular neurosurgery. During his 40-year medical career, Dandy published five books and more than 160 peer-reviewed articles while conducting a full-time, ground-breaking neurosurgical practice in which he performed during his peak years about 1000 operations per year (Sherman et al. 2006). He was recognized at the time as a remarkably fast and particularly dextrous surgeon. Dandy was associated with the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and theJohns Hopkins Hospital his entire medical career. The importance of his numerous contributions to neurosurgery in particular and to medicine in general has increased as the field of neurosurgery has evolved.